Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: The biosocial foundation of the early Vygotsky: Educational psychology before the zone of proximal development.

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One of Lev Vygotsky's most widely known concepts in educational psychology is the zone of proximal development (ZPD), which he began to articulate in the last 2 years of his life and work (1933–1934). This article explores an earlier period in Vygotsky's career—well before he developed the concept of the ZPD—when he was actively involved in pedagogy and educational psychology. With reference to the research and teaching that Vygotsky carried out in Gomel and gathered together for publication some years later, this article highlights his initial conception of educational psychology, and then critically reviews four of his ideas from this first period, namely, (a) the pedagogical importance of the learner's individual experience ("ultimately, the child teaches himself”), (b) the pedagogical applications of interest ("from one interest of the child's to a new interest”), (c) the psychological value of play ("games are the child's first school of thought”), and (d) the link between life and education ("ultimately, only life educates”). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)