Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: Meta-analytic and multiwave comparison of emotional support and instrumental support in the workplace.

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Two complementary studies were conducted to compare emotional support and instrumental support in the workplace. Study 1 included meta-analyses with 142 independent samples containing 68,354 participants and tested the moderation effects of source of support (supervisor vs. coworker) and support scale type (received vs. availability). Study 2 incorporated a two-wave survey design and objective ratings of participant job demands. Overall, emotional support and instrumental support were strongly correlated and demonstrated a similar pattern of effects with work criteria. However, the emotional supportâ€"instrumental support relationship is stronger within occupations higher in emotional labor demands. Moderation effects of support on stressorâ€"criteria relationships were also reviewed among the primary studies in the meta-analysis. For both emotional support and instrumental support, buffering effects and reverse buffering effects were commonly found, which indicates that contextual factors need to be considered to determine when support mitigates or exacerbates the effect of stressors on work criteria. Moderation effects of source of support (supervisor vs. coworker) and support scale type (received vs. availability) were also tested. In general, support was more strongly correlated with criteria when the source of support was the supervisor and the scale included items about the availability of support. The findings from the two studies provide researchers and practitioners a guide for when emotional support and instrumental support converge or diverge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)