Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: Context diversity predicts the extent to which the American identity is implicitly associated with Asian Americans and European Americans.

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Prior research documents that Asian Americans are implicitly seen as less American than European Americans (implicit American = White effect). The aim of the present research was to test whether this effect is weaker in more ethnically diverse metropolitan areas. Data from the 2010 U.S. Census were utilized to compute three indicators of context ethnic diversity: minority representation, variety, and integration. Implicit ethnic-American associations were assessed using data collected through Project Implicit. A total of 304 metropolitan areas were included in the analyses. The sample (N = 271,006) included 44.8% White and 31.7% Asian participants; it was composed mostly of relatively young adults (M = 26.54, SD = 11.16) and included more women (60.9%) than men. Respondents completed an Implicit Association Test measuring associations between the concepts "American" versus "foreign" and two ethnic groups ("Asian American" vs. "European American"). Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The implicit American = White effect was less pronounced in metropolitan areas characterized by higher proportions of Asian Americans (minority representation). The presence of multiple ethnic groups (variety) was associated with a weaker implicit American = White effect only when minority representation was high. Greater dispersion of ethnic groups at the neighborhood level (integration) was not a source of reliable variation in implicit ethnic-American associations. These findings highlight the value of a multifaceted perspective on context ethnic diversity. The extent to which the American identity is implicitly associated with Asian Americans and European Americans fluctuates as a function of sociostructural characteristics of local contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)