Practice recommendations for addressing racism: A content analysis of the counseling psychology literature.

Although racism persists as a significant public health issue that adversely impacts the mental health of people of color (U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, 2001), there has been very little systematic guidance for mental health professionals to address racism through practice (S. Harrell, 2000). Therefore, we conducted a content analysis of the peer reviewed counseling psychology literature—the first of its kind—to provide a summary and critique of the extant practice recommendations and facilitate the development and enhancement of practice efforts aimed at addressing racism. We reviewed racism-related articles published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology, The Counseling Psychologist, and Counseling Psychology Quarterly and identified 73 relevant articles, of which 51 provided practice recommendations. Based on our review of this literature, we identified eight general categories of recommendations for addressing racism: psychoeducation, validation, self-awareness and critical consciousness, critical examination of privilege and racial attitudes, culturally responsive social support, developing positive identity, externalize/minimize self-blame, and outreach and advocacy. We found that most recommendations within each category were at the individual level with far fewer at the group and systemic level. A critique of recommendations is provided along with suggestions for developing and bolstering practice, research, and consultation efforts aimed at addressing racism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)