Testing two models of stigma for birth mothers of a child with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

The current study tested the utility of 2 models in understanding the stigma of being a birth mother of a child with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The attribution model (AM) sought to explain helping behaviors from controllability and positive emotions, whereas the stereotype content model (SCM) and corresponding behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes (BIAS) map sought to explain active and passive facilitation from stereotypes of warmth and competence and emotions of admiration, pity, envy, and contempt. A total of 267 ethnically diverse undergraduates (Mage = 19.18, 75% female) were recruited to complete an online questionnaire. Participants rated birth mothers of a child with FASD on measures of (a) controllability, positive emotions, and helping behaviors for the AM and (b) stereotypes, elicited affect−emotions, and behavioral tendencies for the SCM−BIAS map. Mediation analyses were done using the PROCESS macro for SPSS, applying 5,000 bootstrap resamples with 95% bias-corrected confidence intervals estimated around the indirect effect. As expected, for the AM, mothers rated as higher in controllability elicited fewer positive emotions, and this in turn elicited less help. Also as expected, for the SCM−BIAS map, mothers rated as more warm and competent elicited more admiration, and this admiration in turn elicited more facilitation behaviors. Helping in the AM was strongly related to active and passive facilitation in the SCM−BIAS map, although the SCM−BIAS map explained more of the variance in facilitation than the AM explained in helping. Implications are discussed in terms of future research and stigma reduction interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)