Understanding experiences with bullying and bias-based bullying: What matters and for whom?

Objective: Using data from the 2015 National Crime Victimization Survey School Crime Supplement, this study examines differential outcomes for youth who report nonbias-based bullying, bias-based bullying on the basis of one social identity, and bias-based bullying on more than one social identity. Method: Data were gathered from youth aged 12 to 18 who reported experiences of bullying (N = 678, 44.2% male). The study tested outcomes regarding (a) rates of afterschool activity participation, (b) participants’ self-reported fear, and (c) self-reported school avoidance and the relative impact of mediators (the negative effects of bullying, participants’ perceptions of school safety, social support, and school fairness) across three types of bullying experiences. Results: Results demonstrate that perceptions of school safety, social support, and school fairness generally buffer youth from the negative effects of bullying but that these relationships differ depending on whether the victim experiences nonbias-based bullying or bias-based bullying and depending on if they are targeted because of one or multiple facets of their social identity. Further, results indicate that youth who experience bias-based bullying based on multiple social identities report more negative outcomes of bullying and higher levels of school avoidance and fear than those students who only report one type of bias-based bullying and those who experience non-bias-based bullying. Conclusion: The findings have implications for how schools should implement interventions that address bias and prejudice in bullying and should tailor interventions to the unique experiences of youth who report bias-based and nonbias-based bullying. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)